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Application of microemulsion technology

Article source:人气: date:2015-9-12 15:18:17
 Microemulsion technology is a new technology, it is by hoar and Schulman discovered in 1943 and in 1959 will oil - water surface active agent - to help surface active agent in the formation of homogeneous system formally named micro emulsion (controlled). According to the properties of surfactants and microemulsion composed of different microemulsion, which has two types of water in oil and oil in water.
One, the nature of microemulsion
The micro emulsion is a transparent or semi transparent, isotropic, thermodynamic stable system formed by water, oil, surfactant (surfactant) and cosurfactant. Table 1 a brief comparison of some properties of the microemulsion and conventional emulsion.
Two. Preparation method of microemulsion
(1) in the water, the emulsifier is dissolved in water, and the oil is added in the intense stirring, and the O/W type emulsion can be got.
(2) in the oil phase of the oil and the oil, and then add water, directly to the W/O type emulsion. Continue to add water to the variant, can be O/W type emulsion. This system can be made of O/W type emulsion particle size is small, the stability is high.
(3) in addition, the oil and water flow is added to the emulsifier by the method of rotation, and each time a small amount.
(4) instant soap stabilizing emulsion, which can be dissolved in oil phase, is soluble in water. The two phase mixture was mixed in the instant, and the fatty acid soap was formed at the interface, thus the stability of the emulsion was obtained.
(5) when the compound emulsifier is used in the generation of the interface complex, the lipophilic and lipophilic emulsifying agent is dissolved in the oil phase, and the hydrophilic emulsifier is dissolved in the aqueous phase. When mixed, the interface of the two kinds of emulsifying agent to form complex, so that the emulsion stability.
(6) the spontaneous emulsification method does not require mechanical agitation, and the oil, water and emulsifier are added together spontaneously to form an emulsion.
Three, the application in the oil industry
1, in the improvement of oil recovery in the application
Crude oil plays an important role in all kinds of energy, about 40% of the world's energy. However, crude oil is non renewable resources, reserves in the year by year. Therefore, it is very important to improve the recovery of crude oil to increase the supply of crude oil. The so-called enhanced oil recovery is the oil through the injection of various kinds of materials in the original reservoir. A recovery is on the exploitation of the underground reservoir pressure; secondary oil recovery is defined by means of gas injection and water injection is locally in the reservoir increased pressure; tertiary oil recovery is refers to any secondary oil recovery after the technology, microemulsion flooding is one of more effective.
Micro emulsion technology for the three oil recovery, from the beginning of the 70's, the two time of the 60 oil crisis has greatly accelerated the work of this area. The main reason why the oil displacement of the micro emulsion oil displacement oil is that the micro emulsion can produce a very low interfacial tension. After the two oil recovery, the remaining oil in the formation of capillary pipeline, the oil and water interfacial tension of about 30N/m, it is concluded that the pressure difference is generally 100Kg/cm-2/m-1, and the pressure difference is only 2 ~ 4Kg/cm-2/m-1, so the oil can not be produced by injection of crude oil. But the surface tension decreases to 10-3N/m, which can greatly improve the recovery efficiency.
2. Application of fuel oil
In 1913, the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom proposed ideas in the engine of Emulsifying Combustion, the first annual meeting, in 1981 the combustion institute decided the emulsified fuel is one of the three major energy-saving measures. With the contradiction between supply and demand of energy, energy conservation and environmental protection have become the world research project. Today's oil, especially the price of diesel oil continues to rise, the wholesale price of nearly 4000 yuan per ton. Therefore, water in oil microemulsion diesel fuel, the new energy, becomes a hot topic in recent years.
Micro emulsion diesel has a rigorous scientific basis for its energy saving and environmental protection performance. Water itself does not burn, and the use of the internal combustion engine water cut fuel is able to energy conservation, not water instead of fuel, but to promote the combustion, so that the original combustion more perfect. As is known to all, water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, in high temperature and high pressure cylinder combustion will occur a series of additional chemical reaction, will produce a large number of O, h and OH radicals, these substances greatly activated the whole combustion process. First, by using its own fully inhibited the decomposition of oxygen combustion, unburned carbon emissions in advance, making it more complete combustion, thus saving fuel; second, the use of water heat in all solid and liquid in the characteristics of rapid absorption of heat and reduce the swelling power components of friction, reducing self consumption and saves oil, the increase in power; third, reduce carbon deposition and glue, aqueous fuel can reduce the local temperature hypoxia dehydrogenation cracking of hydrocarbon carbon particles formed, and each side wall of the combustion chamber and nozzle, spark electrode and other prominent parts of the temperature homogenization, ensure the overall work, so as to achieve the purpose of saving; fourth, prompted the two times of atomization, because of the low boiling point of water and evaporation early, water vapor generated pressure formed by water breakthrough of oil film, micro explosion effect, so that the oil, water has been in the carburetor After the re atomization, not only greatly improve the combustion utilization rate and energy saving, and increase the power, reduce the exhaust pollution more than 30%, is a clean energy saving fuel.
3. Application in paraffin
Paraffin wax and high efficiency emulsifying agent, such as paraffin wax emulsion, the emulsion particles with small, stable, transparent and so on.
Microemulsion wax can be used in the artificial board industry, and our country's present various kinds of fiber board and particle board all have different degrees of using microemulsion wax as waterproof agent. In paper industry